Friday, 3 May 2013

Women Smoker Warned On Colorectal Cancer Risk

Smoking increased the danger for developing melanoma of the digestive tract, and women users may have a higher danger than men users, according to data published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a publication of the American Organization for Cancer Analysis.

"Globally, during the last 50 decades, the variety of new melanoma of the digestive tract situations per year is growing for both men and women," said Inger Torhild Gram, M.D., Ph.D., lecturer in the Department of Community Medicine at the University of Tromsø in Norway. "Our study the first that shows females who smoking less than men still get more melanoma of the digestive tract."

Gram and her co-workers analyzed the association between smoking cigarette and colon cancer, by tumor location, in a large Norwegian cohort of more than 600,000 men and women. The members from four surveys started by the National Health Screening Service of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health had a short health examination and completed surveys about smoking habits, exercising and other lifestyle aspects. The members were followed by linkage to the Cancer Registry of Norwegian and the Central Population Register. During an average 14 decades of follow-up, close to 4,000 new melanoma of the digestive tract situations were clinically diagnosed. Gram and co-workers discovered that women smokers had a 19 % increased risk in contrast to never-smokers, while men tobacco users had an 8 % increased risk in contrast to never-smokers.

In addition, females who started smoking when they were 16 or younger and ladies who had used for 40 decades or more had a substantially increased danger, by about 50 %. Also, the dose-response association between the variety of cigarettes used per day, period of time used and number of pack-years smoked and colon cancer risk was stronger for women than it was for men. "The finding that females who smoking even an average no of tobacco daily have an increased danger for melanoma of the digestive tract will consideration for a substantial variety of new situations because melanoma of the colon is such a typical disease," said Gram. "A causal relationship between smoking and colon cancer has recently been established by the International Agency for Analysis on Cancer of the World Wellness Organization, but unfortunately, this is not yet well known, neither among health employees nor people." 

The large-scale research discovered that smoking enhances the chance of intestinal melanoma in females by 19% in contrast to females who had never used. This was much larger than the (non-significant) 8% danger increase seen in men cigarette users. Smoking is an acknowledged danger factor for intestinal (colon) melanoma and several other life-threatening illnesses in both men and ladies. It is essential remember that these studies only looked at melanoma of the digestive tract. Whether there are gender variations in other smoking-related malignancies, lung cancer, is uncertain based on the findings of this study alone. 

The writers point out that their research did not take into consideration essential risks known to be linked to intestinal melanoma, such as genealogy, alcohol consumption. If these had been included the results may well have been different. The research also didn't produce any firm evidence to explain why there may be a difference in danger between females and men. Future research will need to address these limitations to see if the sex variations in danger still apply and, if so, why.

Wednesday, 17 April 2013

New Type of Bowel Cancer Discovered By Researchers

A unique sub-type of bowel melanoma has been discovered which has a more intense result than other kinds of melanoma of the colon cancer and is resistant to certain focused therapies, according to analysis released in Nature Medicine.

Researchers from the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute at the University of Cambridge and the Netherlands examined malignancies from 90 individual sufferers with level II melanoma of the colon and discovered that they could group the samples into three unique sub-types. They then developed a board of 146 genes that could differentiate these sub-types, and verified their results by examining a further 1100 sufferers with the illness.

 Two of these sub-types were already known, but in more than a one fourth of the sufferers a new type of melanoma was identified, which was formerly not considered as a separate sub-type. These sufferers were more likely to do more intense than those with the other kinds of bowel cancer. Furthermore, their malignancies were more competitive and resistant to the medication cetuximab, which can be used to cure the illness. Cetuximab targets a compound called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose link to melanoma was discovered by Cancer Research UK scientists in the 1980's.

Further tests revealed that this third group of intestinal malignancies are likely to create in a different way from the other kinds, which may describe their aggressiveness. This features the need for further analysis to understand this particular sub-type of intestinal melanoma and create new therapies to focus on it. Dr. Louis Vermeulen, lead researcher on the study, said:  “We determined a new sub-type of intestinal melanoma by learning how the genes in tumors behaved.  This permitted us to develop a quick and fast test to recognize this sub-type, which has a bad diagnosis and reacts badly to anti-EGFR therapy  a identified treatment for many intestinal malignancies.

“When we further examined what qualities described the three sub-types, we discovered that this third sub-type was already primed to propagate from an early on, something that was previously only thought to happen much later in tumor development. We think these variations between the different sub-types may happen from the cell of origin for the tumor rather than any specific mutation.” Kate Law, Cancer Research UK’s director of clinical research, said: “As April is bowel cancer awareness month, this kind of research reminds us of the importance of looking not just at specific mutations, but also how certain genes behave.

“Bowel cancer survival rates have doubled over the last 40 years  research and a better understanding of the disease has been core to this. Studies like this one are essential for uncovering the basic building blocks of cancer, allowing us to adopt a more personalized approach to curing cancer and develop better treatments sooner.”